Каква е разликата между двата основни вида социализъм Марксизма и Фашизма?
Twentieth century socialism came in two basic models: Marxist and Fascist. People tend to tie the word to the former and forget the latter was pure socialism as well. The official name of the Nazi Party was “der Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiters Partei — in English translation: the National Socialist German Workers’ Party. Hitler left little doubt as to the socialist nature of his movement. Here he describes the Nazis.
“We are socialists, we are enemies of today’s capitalistic economic system for the exploitation of the economically weak, with its unfair salaries, with its unseemly evaluation of a human being according to wealth and property instead of responsibility and performance, and we are all determined to destroy this system under all conditions.”
The reality is that the Nazis and the Marxists were claiming the exact same social and economic space. In both cases they were essentially collectivist and demanded centralized control and planning of the entire economy. Neither the Nazis nor the Marxists accepted the market as the best means of distributing goods.
The fascists had no less control of the economy than did the Marxists. The Nazis controlled all production, all prices, all wages and all means of distribution. That they ostensibly left ownership in the hands of individuals in no way diminished their ability to control absolutely every aspect of the economy. Unlike the de jure socialism of the Marxists, the fascists imposed complete control of the economy in a de facto manner. They may not have claimed 100% ownership of the economy, but “concerning the fact” they maintained absolute control of the economy just the same as if they did.
Marxists are de jure socialists and fascists are de facto socialists. They are both, however, socialists. The result of both types of socialism is the same: centralized governmental control of the means of production and the economy.
Fighting for the same social space put the Marxists and fascists at odds from the start. The war between the German fascists and the Soviet Marxists left only the Marxists standing. They continued their propaganda campaign to define the fascists – who were more like them than different from them – as radically different. The Soviets irrationally but effectively defined fascism to be on the far right rather than the far left. Defining fascism as a right wing phenomenon allowed the Soviets to continue to demonize it and differentiate themselves from it. The propaganda was radically different from the reality but it was effective. Today, defenders of socialism deny the socialist nature of fascism with the same passion as did the Soviets. They have a real need, understandably, to differentiate themselves from the socialist Nazis.
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